Apple computer
The best computers on this planet (Forget Microsoft!)

Hardware improvement
Memory suppliers (also for DOS-computers = Windows)

open source licenses:

Free Software Foundation; GNU project (Richard Stallman, 1984, Copyleft):


definition open source, several licenses (Eric S. Raymond, 1998, marketing project of GNU)

The Cathedral and the Bazaar:


software patents:


open-source software for molecular biology:

lists of links:

sets of modules for molecular biology applications written in different programming languages (BioPerl, BioPython, BioJava usw.) (Linux, Windows, Mac):


Molecular Linux:


overview on software for different platforms:


packgages designed for sequence analysis (and more):

EMBOSS: (Linux)


GUI for EMBOSS (KDE; alternative to JEMBOSS): (Linux)


BIRCH (wrapper for different individual programs needed for sequence analysis etc.): (Linux)



Staden-package: (verschiedene Plattformen)


GenDB (wrapper for the annotation of microbial genomes): (Linux)


server dedicated to sequence analysis:


open source software suitable for the analysis of microarrays:

- Michael Eisen (Windows):

- TIGR: (Windows):

- Bioconductor.(R):

- BASE (Linux):


Cyber-T (Webserver, but also installable locally, based on R, Linux):


list of links pointing to freeware for Windows:

sequence analysis packages: DAMBE, BioEdit, GeneDoc

drawing of chemical structures: IsisDraw

pretty design of alignments: Chroma.


Metafile Companion (Windows):

(editing of .emf und .wmf files; test version startable thirty times; $29,00 charge for registration)


phylogenetics programs (MEGA, MrBayes, ARB): (Windows) (Linux, Mac, Windows) (Linux)

list of links by Joe Felsenstein:

automated phylogenetics (Server):



(homologous bacterial genes, Webserver, data base also installable locally (Linux)):


alignment programs:

local alignment (DIALIGN):  (server and program (different platforms)


global alignment (ClustalWX): (different platforms) (server)


supposed to be better than ClustalW or X (T-Coffee): (server)

(program, Linux, Mac, Windows)



(curated database of genomes of  microorganisms (13 species) with identical GUI, server)



(searchable database and annotation tool of all sequenced organisms (also „genomes in progress“)



(detection of distantly related proteins, server):


programs for statistics:

R (open source replacement for S/S-Plus, Linux, Windows, Mac):


S-Plus (commercial, nice GUI): (Windows, Linux)


programs for mathematical applications:

Octave (open source replacement for MATLAB; Linux, Windows) :


MATLAB (commercial): (Windows, Mac, Linux)


word processing and typography:

- Latex/Tex: (many platforms)


- Ktexmaker (GUI for KDE): (Linux)


- GUI’s for Latex (WYSIWYM instead of WYSIWYG): (many platforms) (Linux, Windows, MacOS)


open source office-package (compatible to MS-Office-files): (Windows, Linux, Mac)


Unix-filesystem (FHS; filesystem hierarchy standard):


Linux-Documentation (HOWTO, books):